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The Realtime Reporting and Captioning Theory, taught exclusively by Court Reporting and Captioning at Home CLICK HERE, is the only NCRA-approved theory developed specifically for distance learning students. It is the most advanced, yet simplified, realtime theory available.

This trendsetting theory connects the court reporting, captioning, and CART Providing student with the best technology available to capture the spoken word.

Developed by the preeminent court reporting educator in the world, the Realtime Reporting and Captioning theory sets the standard for realtime theories.

Not only does it give the court reporting, captioning, and CART Providing student a superior realtime foundation, it also allows the student to build speed faster, and be a more accurate realtime writer.

The following information is taken from the National Court Reporters Association website section for approve theories.  For more detailed information about this trendsetting theory CLICK HERE.

The following information about the Realtime Reporting and Captioning Theory was taken from the NCRA's website and can be found there.

Realtime Reporting and Captioning Theory

General Overview
Support Materials for Students


General Overview

The CRAH theory is the only theory developed specifically for home study students.  It is proprietary to the CRAH program and is not sold to schools or individuals who are not training with the CRAH program.  What makes this theory unique is that it correlates a DVD tutorial with each of the 20 theory lessons.  So learning the theory is like having a reporter sitting next to the student, mentoring the student, while he learns each of the 20 theory lessons, unlike other theories requiring an instructor in the classroom.  

 This theory was developed so it could be SIMPLIFIED for home study students, containing only 20 theory lessons, while still meeting the NCRA requirements for NCRA-approved theories.  The CRAH theory manual is printed in color, allowing the student to recognize immediately new material introduced in each lesson printed in red, important notes to the student printed in blue, and other colors designating different information. 

The easy to understand lessons make it possible for the student to proceed through the theory lessons with little or no assistance.  However, while the student is training at his home with the DVD tutorial, he is never alone, as he has a Support Department available to assist him.

The DVD tutorial illustrates everything a student would learn in a formal school setting, including how to attach the tripod to the steno machine, proper posture, correct finger placement, as well as illustrating how to write each of the 20 theory lessons.  Each of the 20 theory lessons contains an audio drill dictated on a CD for each lesson and a review of the material presented in the prior lesson. 

The CRAH theory contains a reasonable number of brief forms, also referred to as arbitraries in the CRAH theory, which are shortcuts for writing the most commonly heard words and phrases.  There are literally thousands of brief forms/arbitraries that could be introduced, but one can only remember a reasonable number of them.  Based upon the theory developer’s 30 years of reporting experience and realtime writing, she included the most important ones.  The CRAH theory allows individuals to add brief forms/arbitraries to their theory if they choose, so long as they do not conflict with any other steno outline.  However, for purposes of realtime writing and captioning, the NCRA’s realtime writing concepts are the foundation for this theory.  “Realtime Writing and Captioning Theory” offers the student optional methods of writing in steno in many cases, allowing them to utilize the method of writing that is easiest for them to remember and write.  No two students learn reporting exactly the same, and offering students a theory that allows them options may ensure a student will complete his training. 

Support Materials for Students

“Realtime Reporting and Captioning Theory” is a simplified theory containing 20 theory lessons in hard copy in the Theory Manual.  A Practice and Reference Manual is coordinated with the 20 theory lessons and contains answers to the review quiz presented for each prior lesson, lists of brief forms/arbitraries presented lesson by lesson as well as alphabetically, a Weekly Planner to monitor the student’s progress, and a steno machine keyboard chart. 


In addition to practice dictation for each theory lesson, there is a short written test covering each of the 20 theory lessons.  Once the student can write and read back the audio dictation for each lesson, the student takes the short written test to ensure he has mastered the material introduced in each lesson. 

At the completion of the 20 theory lessons, the theory is supported with audio CD and DVD dictation to refine the student’s theory knowledge and build speed.  This consists of audio dictation in the three categories of literary, jury charge, and testimony or Q&A (question and answer) dictation from 60-225 wpm for testing purposes, and 60-260 wpm for practice dictation.  There is also supplemental dictation for medical terminology and names and numbers practice.

If the student requires any assistance with any lesson, CRAH has a Support Department comprised of professional, credentialed reporters to assist the student with each lesson.  The CRAH theory is also accompanied with a free, prebuilt steno dictionary containing 70,000+ entries which may be utilized in conjunction with any computer aided transcription (CAT) software.  


For further information regarding the “Realtime Reporting and Captioning Theory,” contact Linda Bland, RMR, CPE at Court Reporting at Home at   


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